The rise of Islam creates a new context for philosophy not only among Muslims, but also Jews and Christians.
Philosophy in the Islamic world begins in the 9th century, as thinkers respond to the impact of Greek works translated into Arabic, and come to grips with the subtle inquiries of Muslim theology (kalam). Beginning with the early theologians known as the Mu'tazilites and the work of al-Kindi, Peter traces the story up to the time of Avicenna (11th century), who was the pivotal figure for philosophy in Islam. Also considered are the contributions of Jewish thinkers like Saadia Gaon and Christians who wrote in Arabic, such as Yahya ibn 'Adi and other members of the Baghdad school. This series of episodes includes interviews with Deborah Black, Farhad Daftary, Frank Griffel, Dimitri Gutas, and Peter E. Pormann.
For selections of primary texts in translation:
M.A. Khalidi, Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings (Cambridge: 2005).
J. McGinnis and D.C. Reisman (ed. and trans.), Classical Arabic Philosophy: an Anthology of Sources (Indianapolis: 2007).
And see also:
P. Adamson and R.C. Taylor (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy (Cambridge: 2005).
P. Adamson (ed.), Classical Arabic Philosophy: Sources and Reception (London: 2007).
M. Campanini, An Introduction to Islamic Philosophy (Edinburgh: 2008).
T.-A. Druart, “Philosophy in Islam,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy, ed. A.S. McGrade (Cambridge: 2003), 97-120.
G. Endress, “The Defense of Reason: the Plea for Philosophy in the Religious Community,” Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamische Wissenschaften 6 (1990), 1-49.
M. Fakhry, A History of Islamic Philosophy (New York: 1983).
G. Hourani (ed.), Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science (Albany: 1978).
M.E. Marmura (ed.), Islamic Theology and Philosophy (Albany: 1984).
S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman (eds), History of Islamic Philosophy, 2 vols. (London: 1996).
U. Rudolph (ed.) Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie. Philosophie in der islamischen Welt, Bd.1: 8.-10. Jahrhundert, ed. (Basel: 2012).
W.M. Watt, The Formative Period of Islamic Thought (Oxford: 1973).
Bibliography on individual thinkers and movements can be found on the pages of the relevant podcasts.