53. Pilgrim’s Progress: Alexander Crummell
From his time in Liberia to his later concentration on the reform of African American culture, Alexander Crummell identifies progressive “civilization” as a means of liberation.
• A. Crummell, The Future of Africa: Addresses, Sermons, etc., Delivered in the Republic of Liberia (New York: 1862).
• A. Crummell, Africa and America: Addresses and Discourses (Springfield, MA: 1891).
• W.J. Moses (ed.), Alexander Crummell: Destiny and Race. Selected Writings, 1840-1898 (Amherst: 1992).
• K.A. Appiah, In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture (New York: 1992), chapter 1.
• R. Gooding-Williams, In the Shadow of Du Bois: Afro-Modern Political Thought in America (Cambridge, MA: 2009), chapter 3.
• W. Moses, Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent (Cary: 1989).
• J.R. Oldfield, Alexander Crummell (1819–1898) and the Creation of an African-American Church in Liberia (Wales: 1990).
• G.U. Rigsby, Alexander Crummell: Pioneer in Nineteenth-Century Pan-African Thought (New York: 1987).
• S.L. Thompson “The Grammar of Civilization: Crummell and Douglass on Doing Things with Words,” in B. Lawson and F. Kirkland (eds), Frederick Douglass: A Critical Reader (Malden, MA: 1999), 173-203.
• S.L. Thompson, “Crummell on the Metalogic of Non-standard Languages,” Philosophia Africana 10 (2007), 77-106.
• P. Wirzbicki, “Alexander Crummell on Coleridge and the Politics of Abolitionist Selfhood,” Modern Intellectual History (2019), 1-26.
Stanford Encyclopedia: Alexander Crummell