9 - The Final Cut: Democritus and Leucippus

Posted on 16 January 2011

In this episode Peter discusses the Atomists Democritus and Leucippus, and how they were responding to the ideas of Parmenides and his followers.

55 - The Constant Gardener: Epicurus and his Principles

Posted on 20 November 2011

Peter begins to examine the philosophy of Epicurus, focusing on his empiricist theory of knowledge and his atomic physics.

121 - This is a Test: the Mu'tazilites

Posted on 24 March 2013

A first look at the philosophical contributions of Islamic theology (kalām) and its political context, focusing on the Mu'tazilites Abū l-Hudhayl and al-Naẓẓām.

126 - High Five: al-Rāzī

Posted on 28 April 2013

The doctor and philosopher Abū Bakr al-Rāzī sets out a daring philosophical theory involving five eternal principles: God, soul, matter, time and place.

132 - Eye of the Beholder: Theories of Vision

Posted on 8 June 2013

Ibn al-Haytham draws on the tradition of geometrical optics to explain the mystery of human eyesight.

137 - God Willing: the Ash'arites

Posted on 14 July 2013

Al-Ash'arī puts his stamp on the future of Islamic theology by emphasizing God’s untrammeled power and freedom.

36. Fine Grained Analysis: Kaṇāda’s Vaiśeṣika-sūtra

Posted on 19 February 2017

The Vaiśeṣika school offers a metaphysical analysis of the world and an atomistic physics.

37. The Whole Story: Vaiśeṣika on Complexity and Causation

Posted on 5 March 2017

The Vaiśeṣika response to Buddhist skepticism about wholes made up of parts.

280. Get to the Point: Fourteenth Century Physics

Posted on 18 June 2017

Ockham, Buridan, Oresme and Francis of Marchia explore cosmology, atomism, and the impetus involved in motion.

284. Seeing is Believing: Nicholas of Autrecourt’s Skeptical Challenge

Posted on 13 August 2017

The debate between Nicholas of Autrecourt and John Buridan on whether it is possible to achieve certain knowledge.

296. Morning Star of the Reformation: John Wyclif

Posted on 25 February 2018

John Wyclif refutes nominalism and inspires the Lollard movement, which anticipated Reformation thought with its critique of the church.

334. Chance Encounters: Reviving Hellenistic Philosophy

Posted on 20 October 2019

The rediscovery of Epicurus, Lucretius, and Sextus Empiricus spreads challenging ideas about chance, atomism, and skepticism.