65. Separate Fingers, One Hand: Booker T. Washington

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Was Booker T. Washington’s “accommodationist” approach to race relations a failure to stand up to injustice or a cunning strategy for incremental change?



Further Reading

• W.F. Brundage (ed.), Up From Slavery by Booker T. Washington with Related Documents (Boston: 2003).

• B.T. Washington, The Future of the American Negro (Boston: 1900).

• B.T. Washington, Character Building: Being Addresses Delivered on Sunday Evenings to the Students of Tuskegee Institute (New York: 1902).

• E.D. Washington, Selected Speeches of Booker T. Washington (Garden City: 1932).

The 1895 Atlanta Exposition address

Recording of Washington in 1908,  reading a passage from the Atlanta address


• T. Adeleke (ed.), Booker T. Washington: Interpretive Essays (New York: 1998).

• W.F. Brundage (ed.), Booker T. Washington and Black Progress: Up From Slavery 100 Years Later (Gainesville: 2003).

• D. Cunningen, R.M. Dennis, and M.G. Glascoe (eds), The Racial Politics of Booker T. Washington (Amsterdam: 2006).

• L.R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1901 (New York: 1972).

• L.R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 (New York, 1983).

• L.R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington in Perspective, ed. R. Smock (Jackson: 2006).

• D.H. Jackson Jr, Booker T. Washington and the Struggle Against White Supremacy: the Southern Educational Tours 1908-1912 (New York: 2008).

• D. Sehat, “The Civilizing Mission of Booker T. Washington,” Journal of Southern History 73 (2007), 323-62.

• M.R. West, The Education of Booker T. Washington: American Democracy and the Idea of Race Relations (New York: 2006).


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