89. Separate but Unequal: E. Franklin Frazier

Posted on 12 December 2021

Sociologist E. Franklin Frazier critiques the Harlem Renaissance and the “black bourgeoisie” for failing to embrace values that will empower black Americans.

Further Reading

E.F. Frazier, The Negro in the United States (New York: 1951).

E.F. Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie (New York: 1957).

E.F. Frazier, The Negro Family in the United States (Chicago: 1966).

E.F. Frazier, The Negro Church in America (New York: 1974).

E.F. Frazier, Race and Culture Contacts in the Modern World (New York: 1978).


• K. Gaines, “E. Franklin Frazier’s Revenge: Anticolonialism, Nonalignment, and Black Intellectuals’ Critiques of Western Culture,” American Literary History 17 (2005), 506-29.

• J.S. Holloway, Confronting the Veil: Abram Harris Jr., E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche, 1919-1941 (Chapel Hill: 2002).

• B. Landry, “A Reinterpretation of the Writings of Frazier on the Black Middle Class,” Social Problems 26 (1978), 211-22.

• A.M. Platt, E. Franklin Frazier Reconsidered (New Brunswick: 1991).

• P. Saint-Arnaud, African-American Pioneers of Sociology: a Critical History, trans. P. Feldstein (Toronto: 2009), ch.6.

• J.E. Teele (ed.), E. Franklin Frazier and Black Bourgeoisie (Columbia: 2002).


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