104. In Unity Lies Strength: Kwame Nkrumah

Posted on 10 July 2022

The first leader of independent Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, writes against neocolonialism and in favor of socialism and Pan-Africanism.

Further Reading

• K. Nkrumah, Towards Colonial Freedom: Africa in the Struggle Against World Imperialism (London: 1962).

• K. Nkrumah, Africa Must Unite (New York: 1963).

• K. Nkrumah, Neo-Colonialism: the Last Stage of Imperialism (New York: 1965).

• K. Nkrumah, Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for De-Colonization (New York: 1970, first ed. 1964).

• K. Nkrumah, Class Struggle in Africa (New York: 1970).


• A. Biney, The Political and Social Thought of Kwame Nkrumah (New York: 2011).

B. Cissé, “La problématique de la renaissance africaine dans le Consciencisme de Nkrumah: pour une relecture du socialisme africain,” Présence africaine 185-186 (2012), 61-78.

• B. Davidson, Kwame Nkrumah: a View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah  (Oxford: 2007).

• B. Lundt, Kwame Nkrumah 1909-1972: a Controversial African Visionary (Stuttgart: 2016).

• C. Martin, “Nkrumah’s Strategy of Decolonization: Originality and Classicism,” Présence Africaine 85 (1973), 74-105.

• S. Metz, “In Lieu of Orthodoxy: The Socialist Theories of Nkrumah and Nyerere,” Journal of Modern African Studies 20 (1982), 377-92.

• D. Rooney, Kwame Nkrumah: Vision and Tragedy (Accra: 2007).

• Y. Smertin, Kwame Nkrumah (New York: 1987).

• M.W. Williams, “Nkrumahism as an Ideological Embodiment of Leftist Thought Within the African World,” Journal of Black Studies 15 (1984), 117-34.


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