39. The Wolf’s Footprint: Indian Naturalism

Posted on 2 April 2017

The Cārvāka or Lokāyata tradition rejects the efficacy of ritual and belief in the afterlife, and restricts knowledge to the realm of sense-perception.

Further Reading

• R. Bhattacharya, “Cārvāka Fragments: A New Collection,” Journal of Indian Philosophy 30 (2002), 597-640. [Reprinted in his Studies, see below.]


• R. Bhattacharya, “What the Cārvākas Originally Meant: More on the Commentators on the Cārvākasūtra,” Journal of Indian Philosophy 38 (2010), 529-42.

• R. Bhattacharya, Studies on the Cārvāka/Lokāyata (London: 2011).

• D. Chattopadhyaya, Lokāyata: a Study in Ancient Indian Materialism (New Delhi: 1973).

• P. Gokhale, “The Cārvāka Theory of Pramāṇas: A Restatement,” Philosophy East and West 43 (1993), 675-82.

• D. Riepe, The Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought (Seattle: 1961).

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Naturalism in Classical Indian Philosophy


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