86. French Connection: The Negritude Movement

Posted on 31 October 2021

Our first look at the emergence of the Negritude movement in Paris in the 1930s, with a focus on the early leadership of the Nardal sisters and Leon Damas.

Further Reading

• L.G. Damas, "Price-Mars, le père du Haitianisme," Présence Africaine 32/33 (1960): 166-178.

• J. Nardal, "Black Internationalism (1928)," in T.D. Sharpley-Whiting, Negritude Women (Minneapolis: 2002), 105-107.

• P. Nardal, "The Awakening of Race Consciousness among Black Students (1932)," in T.D. Sharpley-Whiting, Negritude Women (Minneapolis: 2002), 119-124.

• L.S. Senghor, "La Négritude, comme culture des peuples noirs, ne saurait être dépassée," in Liberté 5: Le Dialogue des Cultures (Paris: 1993), 95-109.


• B.H Edwards, The Practice of Diaspora: Literature, Translation, and the Rise of Black Internationalism (Cambridge, MA: 2003).

• L. Kesteloot, Black Writers in French: A Literary History of Negritude, trans. E.C. Kennedy (Washington, D.C.: 1991).

• R. Rabaka, The Negritude Movement: W.E.B. Du Bois, Leon Damas, Aime Cesaire, Leopold Senghor, Frantz Fanon, and the Evolution of an Insurgent Idea (Lanham, MD: 2015).

• G. Wilder, The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude and Colonial Humanism between the Two World Wars (Chicago: 2005).



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