122. A More Human Face: Steve Biko

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Famous for his killing at the hands of the Apartheid government in South Africa, Steve Biko was also a deep thinker, who introduced the notion of Black Consciousness.



Further Reading

• S. Biko, I Write What I Like (London: 1978).


• R. Fatton, Black Consciousness in South Africa (Albany: 1986).

• G.M. Gerhart, Black Power in South Africa: the Evolution of an Ideology (Berkeley, 1978)

• C.R.D. Halisi, Black Political Thought in the Making of South African Democracy (Bloomington: 1999).

D. Hirschmann, “The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa,” Journal of Modern African Studies 28 (1990), 1-22.

• D. Magaziner, “Black Man, You Are on Your Own!": Making Race Consciousness in South African Thought, 1968-1972,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 42 (2009), 221-40.

A. Mngxitama et al. (eds), Biko Lives! Contesting the Legacies of Steve Biko (Houndsmills: 2008).

• N.B. Pityana et al. (eds), Bounds of Possibility: the Legacy of Steve Biko and Black Consciousness (Cape Town: 1991).

• T. Sithole, Steve Biko: Decolonial Meditations of Black Consciousness (Lanham: 2016).

• T. Sono, Reflections on the Origin of Black Consciousness in South Africa (Pretoria: 1993).


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photo of Steve Biko

Africana Philosophy in the Twentieth Century

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