218. Two Swords: Early Medieval Political Philosophy

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The “Investiture Contest” between church and state and the first major work of medieval political philosophy, John of Salisbury’s Policraticus.



Further Reading

• C.J. Nederman (trans.), John of Salisbury: Policraticus (Cambridge: 1990).

• R. Ziomkowski (trans.), Manegold of Lautenbach: Liber contra Wolfelmum (Paris: 2002).


• J.H. Burns, The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought c. 350-c.1450 (Cambridge: 1988).

• J. Canning, A History of Medieval Political Thought 300-1450 (London:1996).

• C.J. Nederman, “A Duty to Kill: John of Salisbury’s Theory of Tyrannicide,” Review of Politics 50 (1988): 365-89.

• C.J. Nederman and C. Campbell, “Priests, Kings and Tyrants: Spiritual and Temporal Power in John of Salisbury’s Politicratus,” Speculum 66 (1991), 572-90.

• I.S. Robinson, Authority and Resistance in the Investiture Contest (New York: 1978).

• B. Tierney, The Crisis of Church and State 1050-1300 (Toronto: 1988).

• M. Wilkes (ed.), The World of John of Salisbury (Oxford: 1984).

Stanford Encyclopedia: John of Salisbury


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