72. In A Class of Their Own: Early African American Socialism
Around the time of World War One, Hubert Harrison (pictured), A. Philip Randolph, and other black socialists argue that racial oppression is caused by capitalism.
• H.H. Harrison, The Negro and the Nation (New York: 1917).
• H.H. Harrison, When Africa Awakes: the “Inside Story” of the Stirrings and Strivings of the New Negro in the Western World (New York: 1920).
• P.M. Heideman (ed.), Class Struggle and the Color Line: American Socialism and the Race Question 1900-1930 (Chicago: 2018).
• A.E. Kersten and D. Lucander (eds), For Jobs and Freedom: Selected Speeches and Writings of A. Philip Randolph (Amherst: 2013).
• J.B. Perry, A Hubert Harrison Reader (Middletown: 2001).
• C.L. Bynum, A. Philip Randolph and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Baltimore: 2010).
• P.S. Foner, American Socialism and Black Americans: From the Age of Jackson to World War II (Westport: 1977).
• M. Makalani, In the Cause of Freedom: Radical Black Internationalism from Harlem to London, 1917-1939 (Chapel Hill: 2014).
• M. Makalani, “An Apparatus for Negro Women: Black Women’s Organizing, Communism, and the Institutional Spaces of Radical Pan-African Thought,” Women, Gender, and Families of Color 4 (2016), 250-73.
• M. Marable, “A. Philip Randolph and the Foundations of Black American Socialism,” in J. Green (ed.), Workers’ Struggles, Past and Present (Philadelphia: 1983), 209-33.
• J.B. Perry, Hubert Harrison: the Voice of Harlem Radicalism, 1883-1918 (New York: 2010).
• P.F. Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph: Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (Baton Rouge: 1990).
• N.M. Taylor, America’s First Black Socialist: The Radical Life of Peter H. Clark (Lexington: 2013).